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Testing positive: New York has among lowest state rates of new COVID-19 cases

New York continues to have one of the nation’s lowest rates of people testing positive for the coronavirus, but experts say recent outbreaks and cooler weather could push those numbers up.

The state had the second-lowest positive test rate in the country, according to Covid Act Now, a nonprofit website run by epidemiologists, public health experts, data scientists and others that analyzes COVID-19 data. In the latest analysis, from Saturday, only Maine, at 0.5%,had a lower rate than New York, which was tied with Vermont for the second-lowest positivity rate of 1.2%. Idaho, with 23.9% of people testing positive, had the highest. The group uses a 7-day rolling average of test results.

In March and April, New York was the epicenter for the pandemic in the United States, with hundreds of residents dying of COVID-19 every day.

“We got from where we were in April because we distanced, we isolated, we masked, and the virus ran its course,” said Dr. David Battinelli, chief medical officer of New Hyde Park-based Northwell Health, the state’s largest health system.

New Yorkers take the pandemic more seriously than many other Americans because they lived through the surge in cases that overloaded area hospitals with COVID-19 patients, and they’re more likely to know people who got sick or died from the disease, he said.

“The question about whether this is real, whether it’s a conspiracy, ‘Is it really what they say?,’ ‘I know somebody who didn’t get that sick’ — all that’s been answered locally,” he said.

“There is more fear,” said Sean Clouston, an associate professor of public health at Stony Brook University.

Clouston said he recently viewed live cams in several states and noticed that in New York most or all people were wearing face coverings, while in states like South Carolina, North Dakota and Louisiana, most of those with masks were seniors or people with visible disabilities, and others typically didn’t wear them.

“I think the culture around mask use is very different — the idea you should protect yourself versus the idea you should wear masks to protect everybody,” he said.

Masks both help prevent people from spreading the coronavirus and from being exposed to it themselves. They become even more important as the weather gets cooler and people spend more time indoors, where the virus is much more likely to spread, Clouston said.

New York also took a more gradual approach to reopening its economy, in comparison to mass reopenings in other states, said Dr. Leonard Krilov, an infectious disease specialist at NYU Winthrop Hospital in Mineola and chairman of pediatrics.

“We’ve been more careful,” he said.

He contrasted his 10-year-old daughter’s Long Island school, with strict social-distancing and other restrictions, with the images he’s seen in other states of students crowded together in hallways.

New York also had the sixth-lowest number of daily new cases per 100,000, according to Covid Act Now.

The state’s 7.4 daily new cases per 100,000 residents was much lower than states experiencing surges, such

New York ‘At Risk’ Of Coronavirus Outbreak, Analysis Finds

NEW YORK, NY — A little over three months ago, New York was one of just three states that was on track to contain the coronavirus, according to the nonprofit Covid Act Now, which tracks local-level coronavirus data. It was a remarkable turnaround for the state, which quickly became the world’s COVID-19 epicenter in the spring and at one point saw over 800 coronavirus-related deaths a day.

And while the number of New Yorkers dying from the disease each day has dramatically fallen into the single digits, Covid Act Now has since revised its rosy outlook and warned that New York is at risk of an outbreak, much like the majority of the country.

New York’s outlook is now worse than Maine, Washington State, California, New Mexico, Hawaii, Maryland and the Northern Mariana Islands.

The outlook comes as Gov. Andrew Cuomo this week announced drastic new rules for places seeing clusters of cases. In the hardest hit areas, non-essential businesses and schools would close, and houses of worship could have no more than 10 people inside.

The state identified clusters on south shore of Nassau County on Long Island, in Rockland and Orange counties in the Hudson Valley, and in parts of Brooklyn and Queens in New York City.

The state has so-called “Red Zone” focus areas in four counties where the positivity rate over the past three weeks reached 6.4 percent. The rest of the state, meanwhile, held steady at 0.91 percent. Red zone focus areas are home to 2.8 percent of the state’s population but account for nearly a fifth of all positive cases in the state during that three-week period.

New York remains at the second-highest level of risk behind “active or imminent outbreak,” according to Covid Act Now.

New York Coronavirus Overview

  • Daily new cases per 100,000: 7.4

  • Infection rate: 1.19

  • Positive rate: 1.3 percent

  • ICU headroom used: 7 percent

  • Tracers hired: 100 percent

When it comes to the infection rate, Covid Act Now said New York’s active cases are rapidly increasing. In describing the 7.4 daily new cases per 100,000 people, the site said the virus is not contained, but still at a low level.

Though it deemed the state is at risk of an outbreak, the site pointed to positive signs. At 1.3 percent, New York’s positive test rate indicates there’s ample tests being taken. With just 7 percent of ICU headroom used, the state can likely handle a new wave of cases, one of Cuomo’s primary concerns at the beginning of the crisis that led to his request for the USS Comfort hospital ship.

An email seeking comment Friday from Gov. Andrew Cuomo’s office and the state Department of Health wasn’t immediately returned.

Covid Act Now is a volunteer-driven nonprofit organization dedicated to providing local-level disease intelligence and data analysis of the coronavirus in the United States, the group said on its website. Its founders include a former Google data science executive, the former chief technology officer of Dropbox Paper, a

New York Health Welcomes Internal Medicine Physician Robin DaCosta, MD

Press release content from PR.com. The AP news staff was not involved in its creation.

Excited to be a part of NY Health, Dr. DaCosta believes that “Medicine is challenging but finding new ways to restore health in our community is so rewarding.”

Excited to be a part of NY Health, Dr. DaCosta believes that “Medicine is challenging but finding new ways to restore health in our community is so rewarding.”

Ronkonkoma, NY, October 08, 2020 –( PR.com )– New York Health is proud to announce the addition of board-certified Robin DaCosta, MD to its team of internal medicine physicians. Dr. DaCosta will be practicing at 217 Portion Road, Ronkonkoma, NY 11779.

Since 2004, she has worked as an Internal Medicine physician on Long Island where she has enjoyed being able to treat the same patients and their families for nearly two decades.

New York Health Welcomes Internal Medicine Physician Robin DaCosta, MD

“I see my patients as an extension of my family. My focus is not only on treating a current illness but to lend support and most importantly to try and prevent illness from ever occurring,” Dr. DaCosta said.

Prior to joining NY Health, Dr. DaCosta practiced at Island Medical Care. Her medical career has taken her to rural Kentucky, providing medical care in a physician shortage area. She has also practiced in Tennessee before returning back to Long Island. After 9/11, she had the privilege to participate in the World Trade Center Medical Monitoring Program where she evaluated and treated those who heroically worked at the World Trade Center site.

Excited to be a part of NY Health, Dr. DaCosta believes that “Medicine is challenging but finding new ways to restore health in our community is so rewarding.”

Dr. DaCosta is a Long Island native who attended Stony Brook University where she received a Bachelor of Science in Biology. In 1989, she graduated with her Doctor of Medicine at New York University School of Medicine. She then completed her Internal Medicine Internship and Residency at Stony Brook University.

To make an appointment with Dr. DaCosta, please call 631-758-7003. For more information, please visit www.nyhealth.com.

About New York Health

At New York Health we provide highly professional, sensitive, and personalized care. All of our patients become part of the NY Health family and we will continuously strive to achieve our main goal. Deliver the best medical care possible with your well-being in mind.

Contact Information:

New York Health

Sarah Gould

631-574-8360

Contact via Email

New York Health Welcomes Internal Medicine Physician Robin DaCosta, MD

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New York City Should Have Done More Outreach in Covid-19 Hot Spots Before Surges, Community Leaders Say

This summer New York City’s public-hospital system identified the areas most at risk of a resurgence of Covid-19 and enlisted community-based organizations to help educate residents and test and trace for the virus.

Now, with the new coronavirus resurgent across pockets of the city, some say this summer’s effort was insufficient and focused on the wrong neighborhoods.

Earlier this week, New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo ordered new restrictions on communities around the state where the virus has rebounded. The affected areas have higher positivity rates of Covid-19 than the rest of the state and include communities in nine ZIP Codes in Brooklyn and Queens that the city has been tracking for weeks as hot spots. Large Orthodox Jewish communities reside in most of the hot spots.

Of the nine ZIP Codes targeted by the city, only one was listed as a high priority this summer by the Health + Hospitals system in a request for grant applications from community-based organizations to help test and trace the virus. Five of the nine ZIP Codes were listed as a low priority and three weren’t listed at all.

Health officials said the neighborhoods under scrutiny now weren’t as high a priority in the summer when other areas were experiencing worsening numbers or were improving at a slower rate than the citywide average.

None of the community-based organizations awarded grants under the program were from the Orthodox community. But officials said that many organizations had now been enlisted to help with the response to the surge in Orthodox neighborhoods.

Officials said that one aim of the city’s outreach to community-based organizations was to address structural conditions of racism that exacerbated the effects of the pandemic. City data show that the pandemic disproportionately affected low-income neighborhoods and people of color compared with whites and higher-income neighborhoods.

Christopher Miller, a spokesman for the city’s hospital system, Health + Hospitals, said: “We continue to identify new organizations to partner with as positivity increases in certain neighborhoods.”

A worker from the Mayor’s Office of Immigrant Affairs handing out masks and printed information about Covid-19 testing in July in New York.



Photo:

Mark Lennihan/Associated Press

The city’s health department, which also does education on the virus, said since February it has done extensive outreach in the communities that are now under lockdowns. The outreach includes advertisements in local newspapers in multiple languages, community round tables and talks with leaders, including rabbis. In late August, officials also began distributing masks at synagogues and conducting testing, according to the health department.

City officials said they have also recently increased testing in these communities.

Carlina Rivera, the Democratic chairwoman of New York City Council’s committee on hospitals, said the hospital system hasn’t been forthcoming about the methods it used to prioritize certain areas or about how many contact tracers speak languages such as Yiddish.

“We think Health and Hospitals is doing their best, but that just might not be enough for an organization that is used to emergency treatment inside a hospital,”

Trump Covid-19: Live Tracker – The New York Times

Credit…Hilary Swift for The New York Times

President Trump announced on Tuesday that he was planning to attend next week’s debate in Miami against former Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. despite his continued struggle with the coronavirus and unresolved questions about the event’s rules.

“I am looking forward to the debate on the evening of Thursday, October 15th in Miami. It will be great!” the president tweeted early Tuesday, the morning after he returned to the White House from Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.

“FEELING GREAT!” he added in a separate tweet, hours before his physician reported that he was feeling well.

Mr. Biden’s campaign did not immediately respond to a request for comment. Over the weekend, Mr. Biden said he would follow the guidance of medical professionals and the nonpartisan commission overseeing the debate in making his plans.

But physicians who specialize in infectious diseases quickly warned that Mr. Trump’s optimism might be premature, and could reflect a false sense of security about his condition, reinforced by temporary improvements that could be reversed once he is removed from medications.

People with mild to moderate cases of the illness are likely to “remain infectious no longer than 10 days after symptom onset,” according to guidelines from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. But that period could be doubled in cases of more serious illness.

That means Mr. Trump could still be contagious, depending on the severity of his case and when his symptoms began, during the next debate, according to Dr. Krutika Kuppalli, an infectious-disease physician in South Carolina.

“We don’t even know what’s going to happen tomorrow, let alone in a few days,” she said.

Medical details that Mr. Trump’s doctors disclosed over the weekend — including his fluctuating oxygen levels and a decision to begin treatment with a steroid drug — suggested to many infectious-disease experts that he had a more severe case of Covid-19 than the physicians acknowledged.

He has been taking a steroid called dexamethasone — a drug known to buoy feelings of well-being, said Dr. Taison Bell, an emergency medicine physician at the University of Virginia, and patients typically need to demonstrate they can function without medication before being allowed to resume normal activities.

Should Mr. Trump’s condition continue to improve and should he be definitively cleared by physicians to participate in next week’s event, Dr. Bell added, masking and distancing will remain crucial. “They need to stick with the rules they’ve set,” he said.

If Mr. Trump is able to follow through on his promise, he faces a campaign transformed by an infection that has spread to his top aides, and stakes that have been heightened by a disruptive performance in the first debate that prompted the Commission on Presidential Debates to consider revising its procedures.

Mr. Trump had previously questioned whether he would participate if new rules,

Live Covid-19 Global Updates – The New York Times

Credit…Anna Moneymaker for The New York Times

In photos and videos released by the White House, there was hardly any sign that President Trump is sick, and painting in the broadest of strokes, his doctors offered a fairly rosy portrait of his condition.

But to some outside experts who examined that portrait closely, some things seemed off.

How much, for example, should people make of the president’s fluctuating oxygen levels? And why did his doctors decide to begin treatment with a steroid drug?

Too some infectious disease experts, there were signs that Mr. Trump may be suffering a more severe case of Covid-19, the disease caused by the coronavirus, than his physicians have acknowledged.

“This is no longer aspirationally positive,” Dr. Esther Choo, a professor of emergency medicine at Oregon Health & Science University in Portland, said of the doctors’ statements. “And it’s much more than just an ‘abundance of caution’ kind of thing.”

Based his doctors’ account, Mr. Trump’s symptoms appear to have rapidly progressed since he announced early Friday that he had tested positive for the coronavirus.

Mr. Trump had a “high fever” on Friday, and there were two occasions when his blood oxygen levels dropped, his doctors said, including to a level that can indicate that a patient’s lungs are compromised. The symptom is seen in many patients with severe Covid-19.

The president’s medical team also said that he had been prescribed dexamethasone. The drug is a steroid used to head off an immune system overreaction that kills many Covid-19 patients. And it is generally reserved for those with severe illness.

“The dexamethasone is the most mystifying of the drugs we’re seeing him being given at this point,” said Dr. Thomas McGinn, physician in chief at Northwell Health, the largest health care provider in New York State.

The drug, he said, is normally not used unless the patient’s condition seems to be deteriorating.

“Suddenly, they’re throwing the kitchen sink at him,” Dr. McGinn said. “It raises the question: Is he sicker than we’re hearing, or are they being overly aggressive because he is the president, in a way that could be potentially harmful?”

Of course, given the patient, there may be another explanation.

Some experts raised an additional possibility: that the president is directing his own care, and demanding intense treatment despite risks he may not fully understand. The pattern even has a name: V.I.P. syndrome.

Credit…Alex Wroblewski/Reuters

As President Trump and some of his associates test positive for the coronavirus, the number of new cases reported each day across the United States has been slowly rising.

The country is at a key moment in the pandemic, and spread of the virus could worsen significantly through the autumn, experts fear, as colder weather forces people indoors. Every day, some 43,000 new cases

Gov. Cuomo falsely claims New York nursing homes ‘never needed’ to take in Covid-positive patients

New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo said that nursing homes “never needed” to accept Covid-positive patients from hospitals in the state due to a shortage of hospital beds.



Andrew Cuomo wearing a suit and tie: NEW YORK, NY - JULY 23: New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo speaks during the daily media briefing at the Office of the Governor of the State of New York on July 23, 2020 in New York City. The Governor said the state liquor authority has suspended 27 bar and restaurant alcohol licenses for violations of social distancing rules as public officials try to keep the coronavirus outbreak under control. (Photo by Jeenah Moon/Getty Images)


© Jeenah Moon/Getty Images North America/Getty Images
NEW YORK, NY – JULY 23: New York Gov. Andrew Cuomo speaks during the daily media briefing at the Office of the Governor of the State of New York on July 23, 2020 in New York City. The Governor said the state liquor authority has suspended 27 bar and restaurant alcohol licenses for violations of social distancing rules as public officials try to keep the coronavirus outbreak under control. (Photo by Jeenah Moon/Getty Images)

During a press call Wednesday, Finger Lakes News Radio asked Cuomo about his administration’s advisory in late March requiring that nursing homes accept the readmission of patients from hospitals, even if they were positive for Covid-19.

The governor’s office has repeatedly said the advisory was based on federal guidance, which prohibited discrimination based on a coronavirus diagnosis. The state’s Department of Health told CNN, “Residents were admitted to nursing homes during that time not as an overflow facility, but because that’s where they live.”

Cuomo said that the advisory was a precaution if hospitals became overwhelmed — calling it an “anticipatory rule” — which he said didn’t happen.

“We never needed nursing home beds because we always had hospital beds,” Cuomo told Finger Lakes News. “So it just never happened in New York where we needed to say to a nursing home, ‘We need you to take this person even though they’re Covid-positive.’ It never happened.”

Facts First: Cuomo’s assertion that “it never happened” is false. According to a report from the New York State Department of Health, “6,326 COVID-positive residents were admitted to [nursing home] facilities” following Cuomo’s mandate that nursing homes accept the readmission of Covid-positive patients from hospitals. Whether or not this was “needed,” it did in fact happen.

Cuomo’s senior adviser Rich Azzarpodi replied Thursday after publication and took issue with this determination, saying that the governor was specifically referencing the hospital bed shortage. “The governor was crystal clear, he was saying that what did not materialize was the crunch for hospital beds, that every projection especially the federal governments projections predicted was going to happen. That’s what he said never happened. Separately the law has always been that nursing homes could only accept residents that they could adequately care for. None of that has changed.”

On March 25, the state’s Health Department issued an advisory requiring nursing homes to accept “the expedited receipt of residents returning from hospitals” if the patients were deemed medically stable.

“No resident shall be denied re-admission or admission to the [nursing home] solely based on a confirmed or suspected diagnosis of COVID-19,” the advisory stated. “[Nursing homes] are prohibited from requiring a hospitalized resident who is determined medically stable to be tested for COVID-19 prior to admission or readmission.”

This mandate received a great deal of criticism, and Cuomo issued an

New York Worries Over 20 Coronavirus Hot Spots, Wisconsin Sees Troubling Trends | Top News

By Jonathan Allen and Lisa Shumaker

NEW YORK (Reuters) – New York state reported an uptick of positive coronavirus tests in 20 “hot spots” on Thursday, while Midwest states also reported rising caseloads led by Wisconsin, where U.S. President Donald Tramp will hold rallies over the weekend.

New cases of COVID-19 rose in 27 out of 50 U.S. states in September compared with August, with an increase of 111% in Wisconsin, according to a Reuters analysis.

Wisconsin is also dealing with a troubling rise in serious COVID-19 cases that threaten to overwhelm hospitals.

“Our emergency department has had several instances in the past week where it was past capacity and needed to place patients in beds in the hallways,” Bellin Health, which runs a hospital in Green Bay, said in a statement. “Our ICU (intensive care unit) beds have also been full, or nearly full, during the past week.”

Dr. Ryan Westergaard, chief medical officer at the Wisconsin department of Health Services, said the state’s outbreak started in younger people and has now spread throughout the community.

“Public gatherings of any kind are dangerous right now, more so than they have been at any time during this epidemic,” he told CNN on Thursday.

In New York, which grappled with the world’s most rampant outbreak earlier this the year, officials said they were worried about clusters of cases in 20 ZIP code areas across the state, where the average rate of positive tests rose to 6.5% from 5.5% the day before.

New York Governor Andrew Cuomo and New Jersey Governor Phil Murphy encouraged residents to download onto their smartphones a new voluntary contact-tracing app, COVID Alert, they launched on Thursday. The app uses Bluetooth technology to alert users if they have recently been near someone who later tested positive for the novel coronavirus.

Many of New York’s 20 hot spots — half of which are in New York City — include Orthodox Jewish communities. Cuomo said he talked to community leaders about enforcing social distancing measures.

“A cluster today can become community spread tomorrow,” Cuomo said on a briefing call with reporters. “These ZIP codes are not hermetically sealed.”

He implored local authorities to increase enforcement measures. “If they’re not wearing masks, they should be fined,” Cuomo said.

Wisconsin health officials are urging residents to stay home and avoid large gatherings ahead of Trump’s weekend rallies in La Crosse and Green Bay in the run up to the Nov. 3 election.

An indoor Trump rally in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in July likely contributed to a subsequent rise in cases there, city health officials said.

“This spike we’re seeing in Brown County, Wisconsin should be a wakeup call to anyone who lives here that our community is facing a crisis,” Dr. Paul Casey, medical director of the emergency department at Bellin Hospital, told CNN.

Cases, hospitalizations, positive test rates and deaths are all climbing in Wisconsin, according to a Reuters analysis.

Over the past week, 21% of coronavirus tests on average came back

New York City Schools Hit Last Step for Reopening Thursday

Students in hundreds of New York City middle and high schools start in-person classes Thursday, as the system gears up for its first effort at random testing for the new coronavirus.

In the third—and if all goes well—final phase of school reopenings for the nation’s largest district, roughly 1,600 traditional public schools will be open Thursday. On Tuesday, about 870 schools welcomed children in elementary grades, including schools serving children in kindergarten through fifth grade and K-8. Preschool and some special-education students returned to school last week.

“A really extraordinary number of schools will be open and ready to serve, and they’re doing it the right way,” Mayor Bill de Blasio said at a press briefing Wednesday. He said virus testing in schools will start next week.

The mayor has pushed to be one of the few major districts nationwide to offer in-person classes, despite resistance from many teachers and parents concerned that gathering large numbers of people in aging buildings might spread the coronavirus.

An Edward R. Murrow High School student attended remotely from Brooklyn, N.Y., Sept. 21.



Photo:

caitlin ochs/Reuters

About half of the district’s one million students have chosen to study online full time, by city data. Many teachers have gotten permission to teach from home because they have medical conditions or live with someone who does.

The mayor has said schools will close if the share of people tested in New York City who are positive for Covid-19 hits 3% on a seven-day rolling average, and his administration was boosting testing and enforcement of mask wearing and other safety rules in areas seeing increases.

The daily share of people tested in New York City who were positive for Covid-19 hit 3.25% for the first time since June, Mr. de Blasio said Tuesday, just as most public schools began reopening. Despite the uptick, on Wednesday the mayor reported a positivity rate of 1.46% on a seven-day rolling average.

The in-school testing is a result of a deal the city negotiated in September with the teachers union to avert a strike vote. As part of a reopening deal with the union, City Hall promised random monthly testing of 10% to 20% of students and staff showing up in person at each school.

School staff members wore protective masks as they waited for students to arrive for in-person classes at Public School 188 Tuesday.



Photo:

John Minchillo/Associated Press

In correspondence with families, the city described its virus-surveillance program as free, quick and painless.

The city Department of Education asked parents this week to sign consent forms for testing. It said consent isn’t mandatory, but students who don’t have consent forms on file might be required to learn remotely if a school has too few permissions.

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City officials said the test isn’t a long swab, but a short, small one that only goes in the nostril. “We are

Several New York zip codes are reporting infection rates five times higher than statewide rate

New York has reported several Covid-19 clusters that have created “hotspot” zip codes, the governor said, with a positivity rate about five times more than statewide.



a person taking a selfie in a car: Medical technicians work at a drive-thru coronavirus disease (COVID-19) testing facility at the Regeneron Pharmaceuticals company's Westchester campus in Tarrytown, New York, U.S. September 17, 2020. Picture taken September 17, 2020. Brendan McDermid/Reuters


© Brendan McDermid/Reuters
Medical technicians work at a drive-thru coronavirus disease (COVID-19) testing facility at the Regeneron Pharmaceuticals company’s Westchester campus in Tarrytown, New York, U.S. September 17, 2020. Picture taken September 17, 2020. Brendan McDermid/Reuters

The new clusters are a “stark reminder” that the state is still not out of the woods when it comes to the pandemic, Gov. Andrew Cuomo said.

“We’ve had clusters in the past stemming from factories, churches, bars and other locations,” Cuomo said . “We’re quite familiar with this, and when there’s a cluster, we are very aggressive on it and we’re oversampling in the clusters.”

Cuomo’s announcement comes as states across the US have begun reporting alarming Covid-19 trends in recent days — and after experts warned of a coming surge in cases.

Wisconsin reported its highest number of Covid-19 hospitalizations on record, with patients nearly doubling in the state since September 18, according to hospital officials. The governor of Illinois is tightening restrictions in one part of the state after an increase in positivity rates. And in Kentucky, Gov. Andy Beshear urged the state needs to stop a recent “escalation” of cases after reporting more than 1,000 new infections for the second day in a row.

At least 27 states have reported more new cases since the previous week and only nine are reporting a decline, according to data from Johns Hopkins University. Nationwide, more than 7.2 million people have been infected and more than 206,000 Americans have died.

When a vaccine could be available to US population

On Wednesday, Moderna CEO Stéphane Bancel said if their Covid-19 vaccine is proven safe and effective, it could be available to the general population by late March or early April.

Moderna began their Phase 3 clinical trial for Covid-19 in the US in July. It’s one of four companies that have begun Phase 3 Covid-19 vaccine trials in the US — the others include Johnson & Johnson, Pfizer/BioNTech and AstraZeneca. The AstraZeneca trial was paused after an unexplained illness in a volunteer, and US health authorities are still considering crucial questions that remain around the injections of the experimental vaccine.

“I think a late Q1, early Q2 approval is a reasonable timeline, based on what we know from our vaccine,” Bancel said at a conference hosted by the Financial Times.

But there are several steps that will have to come before that.

If the safety and efficacy data checks out, Bancel says he expects Moderna will be able to file a Biologics License Application (BLA) with the US Food and Drug Administration by late January or early February. That application asks the FDA to consider fully licensing a drug, while an emergency use authorization (EUA) expedites a drug candidate for use on an emergency basis.

Moderna could file for an EUA as early as November 25 for