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More humans are growing an extra blood vessel in our arm that ‘feeds’ our hands, study shows

Picturing how our species might appear in the far future often invites wild speculation over stand-out features such as height, brain size, and skin complexion. Yet subtle shifts in our anatomy today demonstrate how unpredictable evolution can be.



a man holding his hand up: Man doing a forearm stretch.


© Provided by Live Science
Man doing a forearm stretch.

Take something as mundane as an extra blood vessel in our arms, which going by current trends could be common place within just a few generations.

Researchers from Flinders University and the University of Adelaide in Australia have noticed an artery that temporarily runs down the center of our forearms while we’re still in the womb isn’t vanishing as often as it used to.

That means there are more adults than ever running around with what amounts to be an extra channel of vascular tissue flowing under their wrist.

“Since the 18th century, anatomists have been studying the prevalence of this artery in adults, and our study shows it’s clearly increasing,” says Flinders University anatomist Teghan Lucas.

“The prevalence was around 10 percent in people born in the mid-1880s compared to 30 percent in those born in the late 20th century, so that’s a significant increase in a fairly short period of time, when it comes to evolution.”

The median artery forms fairly early in development in all humans, transporting blood down the center of our arms to feed our growing hands.

At around 8 weeks, it usually regresses, leaving the task to two other vessels – the radial (which we can feel when we take a person’s pulse) and the ulnar arteries.

Anatomists have known for some time that this withering away of the median artery isn’t a guarantee. In some cases, it hangs around for another month or so.

Sometimes we’re born with it still pumping away, feeding either just the forearm, or in some cases the hand as well.

To compare the prevalence of this persistent blood channel, Lucas and colleagues Maciej Henneberg and Jaliya Kumaratilake from the University of Adelaide examined 80 limbs from cadavers, all donated by Australians of European descent.

The donors raged from 51 to 101 on passing, which means they were nearly all born in the first half of the 20th century.

Noting down how often they found a chunky median artery capable of carrying a good supply of blood, they compared the figures with records dug out of a literature search, taking into account tallies that could over-represent the vessel’s appearance.

The fact the artery seems to be three times as common in adults today as it was more than a century ago is a startling find that suggests natural selection is favoring those who hold onto this extra bit of bloody supply.

“This increase could have resulted from mutations of genes involved in median artery development or health problems in mothers during pregnancy, or both actually,” says Lucas.

We might imagine having a persistent median artery could give dextrous fingers or strong forearms a dependable boost of blood long after we’re born. 

Arm squeezes with blood pressure cuffs may help stroke recovery

After administering clot-busting drugs to treat a stroke, using blood pressure cuffs to squeeze each arm might aid recovery, a new, small Chinese study suggests.

In the technique — called remote ischemic post-conditioning — the flow of oxygen-rich blood is repeatedly interrupted and restored using blood pressure cuffs on the arms. Earlier studies have found that the technique may prevent tissue damage by helping the body handle changes in blood flow and the damage that may occur from a stroke, researchers say.

“The findings show a promising future prospect of remote ischemic post-conditioning and have important clinical implications,” said researcher Dr. Guo-liang Li, of First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an and Jiaotong University in Xi’an, China.

“As we all know, the therapy has a lot of advantages,” he said, calling it noninvasive, easy-to-use, cost-effective and safe.

Even though clot-busting drugs have saved many stroke patients, 32% do not have a favorable outcome. This is partly because blood flow is not completely restored and vessels can clot even after clot-busting drugs are given, Li said.

“Remote ischemic post-conditioning can be a complementary treatment that can improve the prognosis in stroke patients,” he said.

This study was done in China, but Li said the technique has also been studied in the United Kingdom, France and Denmark.

For the study, Li’s team randomly assigned 68 people (average age: 65) who suffered a stroke. All were treated within 4.5 hours with a medication that dissolves blood clots called tPA. Half also received ischemic post-conditioning therapy.

Over an average of 11 days, post-conditioning participants wore blood pressure cuffs on both arms for 40 minutes, alternating cycles of inflation for five minutes and deflation for three minutes. Treatments were done twice a day.

Stroke recovery was gauged on a scale of no symptoms no significant disability despite some symptoms or slight disability. People who had no symptoms after three months were considered to have had a favorable recovery.

Seventy-two percent of those who wore the blood pressure cuff had a favorable recovery, compared with 50% of those who didn’t, the researchers found. These findings remained significant even after taking into account age, stroke severity and other factors.

During the trial, two people dropped out — one because the cuffs caused skin redness and the other because the pressure applied during the procedure was uncomfortable. Researchers don’t know how long the treatment is needed to be most effective.

They caution that ischemic post-conditioning is still experimental and isn’t something that should be tried on recovering stroke patients at home.

“In the future, more studies are needed to confirm that the combined therapy of clot-busting drugs and remote ischemic post-conditioning is safe and effective in much larger groups of people before this experimental therapy can be performed at home,” Li said.

Dr. Larry Goldstein, chairman of the Department of Neurology at the University of Kentucky, reviewed the findings.

“This single hospital study was aimed at determining whether the technique might be helpful in improving outcomes of patients with stroke

One Tinley Park Hosts Blood Drive Due To Shortages From COVID-19

TINLEY PARK, IL — One Tinley Park is hosting a blood drive on Oct. 30, at Union Bar & Grill to help gather more blood during the COVID-19 pandemic. The blood drive is in partnership with Versiti Blood Center of Illinois.

According to the Red Cross, blood donations are facing a serious shortage of donations due to the pandemic. One Tinley Park said they are proud to team up with the blood center to provide a safe outlet for people to make a difference in the community.

“As blood banks face coronavirus-driven shortages, donating has never been more crucial. The COVID-19 crisis has led to a drastic reduction in blood donations,” the organization said.

One Tinley Park said its goal is to have around 23 donors sign-up for the event to meet their target of 18 pints of blood. The organization said they have about 30 appointment slots to try and get to their goal.

The organization said they have teamed up with Union Bar & Grill, 17821 80th Ave., for the blood drive, and that the restaurant has offered to give a 20% discount to all blood donors.

According to the website, Versiti is a fusion of donors, scientific curiosity, and precision medicine that recognize the gifts of blood and life are precious.

To sign up for an appointment for the blood drive, visit the appointment schedule on the Versiti Blood Center of Illinois website.

This article originally appeared on the Tinley Park Patch

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COVID-19 ICU patients have higher risk for blood clots, study shows

Hospitalized COVID-19 patients face an increased risk of developing dangerous blood clots, a new review indicates.

The odds of a clot are highest for the most critically ill patients. Analysis of 66 studies found that 23% of COVID-19 patients in an intensive care unit developed a blood clot in the leg, known as a deep vein thrombosis, or DVT.

Overall prevalence of a DVT was 14% among ICU and non-ICU COVID-19 patients, and 8% among those with mild-to-moderate disease risk who were not admitted to the ICU.

The “numbers are surprisingly high when compared with other hospitalized patients,” said study author Dr. Cihan Ay.

Of great concern are blood clots in the legs that can break away and travel to the lungs. This is a life-threatening condition known as pulmonary embolism, or PE.

Nearly 4% of patients not admitted to the ICU developed a pulmonary embolism. And “we found a very high PE risk of 14% in patients treated at an intensive care unit,” said Ay, an associate professor in hematology and hemostaseology at the Medical University of Vienna in Austria.

According to the American Heart Association, DVT and PE are each a form of venous thromboembolism, or VTE, as both refer to a blood clot that originates in a vein.

VTE is estimated to affect between 300,000 and 600,000 Americans every year, the AHA notes. It is most frequently triggered by surgery, cancer, hospitalization or long-term immobilization.

To examine VTE risk related to COVID-19, Ay and his colleagues analyzed the findings of 66 studies, involving roughly 28,000 COVID-19 patients.

On average, the COVID-19 patients were about 63 years old, and six in 10 were men. About one-fifth had been admitted to an ICU.

None of the studies looked at clotting risk among COVID-19 patients who had not received hospital treatment. So the findings do not speak to DVT or PE risk among such patients, said Ay, although “it seems that the risk of clots is low in patients with a mild clinical course of COVID-19.”

Early in the pandemic, it became clear that blood clot risk seemed elevated in patients with COVID-19 compared to other diseases. To prevent clotting, “physicians worldwide intensified dosing of blood thinners for COVID-19 patients,” Ay said.

This created another potential problem, however, since blood thinners increase the risk of bleeding.

The study authors hope their review will offer clinicians more insight into clotting risk profiles, offering guidance as to which patients truly need preventive clot treatment, Ay said.

As to why COVID-19 might drive up clotting risk in the first place, Ay said experts can only speculate based on available data.

“First, the clinical course in such patients is often severe, which by itself increases the thrombosis [clotting] risk,” he said. “Second, researchers found that COVID-19 interacts with the blood clotting system and the blood vessels, which might explain the increased risk in those patients.”

Dr. Gregg Fonarow is director of the University of California, Los Angeles Cardiomyopathy Center. He offered some additional specifics

Improving blood sugar in Type 2 diabetes improves cognitive scores, study says

Oct. 5 (UPI) — Controlling blood sugar levels helped people with Type 2 diabetes who were overweight improve cognitive scores, but losing weight, exercise had mixed results, a new study shows.

More than a quarter of U.S. adults 65 or older have Type 2 diabetes, which doubles the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, according to a statement from the Pennington Biomedical Research Center.

“It’s important to properly control your blood sugar to avoid the bad brain effects of your diabetes,” said study author Owen Carmichael said in a statement.

“Don’t think you can simply let yourself get all the way to the obese range, lose some of the weight, and everything in the brain is fine,” said Carmichael, a professor and director of Biomedical Imaging at Pennington Biomedical Research Center. “The brain might have already turned a corner that it can’t turn back from.”

The study, published in the latest issue of The Journal of Clinical Endrocrinology and Metabolism, analyzed whether markers such as body weight, blood sugar control, and physical activity would be associated with improved cognition in 1,089 participants, age 45 to 76, who have Type 2 diabetes.

Researchers theorized that greater improvements in all three markers would lead to better cognitive test scores, but that turned out to be only partially true. While reducing blood sugar levels improved test scores, losing more weight and exercising more didn’t always do so.

“Every little improvement in blood sugar control was associated with a little better cognition,” Carmichael said. “Lowering your blood sugar from the diabetes range to prediabetes helped as much as dropping from prediabetes levels to the healthy range.”

Meanwhile, results from weight loss varied depending on the mental skill, according to Carmichael. More weight loss improved participants short-term memory, planning, impulse control, attention and the ability to switch tasks, but verbal learning and overall memory still declined.

“The results were worse for people who had obesity at the beginning of the study,” he added.

Similarly, Carmichael said the study showed that increasing physical activity also benefited people who were overweight more than people with obesity.

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AHA News: Despite Recent Setbacks, Americans’ Blood Pressure Has Dropped Dramatically Since 1960 | Health News

(HealthDay)

MONDAY, Oct. 5, 2020 (American Heart Association News) — Blood pressure among adults decreased significantly during a 45-year period, according to new research that may offer encouragement for the millions who continue to struggle to control their blood pressure.

The study, published Oct. 5 in the American Heart Association journal Circulation , sought to pinpoint the magnitude of blood pressure improvement in the United States between 1960 and 2005.

Researchers looked at rates of control for systolic blood pressure, the top number in a reading that indicates how much pressure blood exerts against artery walls when the heart beats. The study looked at data from 9,459 adults ages 45 and older, most of whom lived in the so-called “stroke belt” region of the Southeast.

It found major decreases in median blood pressure levels across the board, with larger decreases for Black participants compared to white participants. Among Black people aged 45 to 54, blood pressure dropped 38 mmHg, while their white counterparts saw an 18 mmHg drop. Dramatic shifts were larger at older ages for both groups, with a 45 mmHg drop for those 75 and older.

In addition, the severe blood pressure levels of greater than 200 mmHg reported in 1960 were practically eliminated during the study period. For example, among 65- to 74-year-olds with the highest blood pressure, the levels dropped 63 mmHg for white people and 77 mmHg for Black people – most likely because of aggressive high blood pressure control strategies, said study author Dr. Daniel Lackland.

He called the results “a great public health success story.”

“This shows we’ve made great improvements in reducing blood pressures for everybody, at all levels,” said Lackland, a professor of epidemiology and neurology at the Medical University of South Carolina in Charleston.

But in recent years, some of those improvements seem to have weakened.

New preliminary research presented in September at the AHA’s virtual Hypertension Scientific Sessions showed the percentage of U.S. adults with controlled blood pressure dropped 11% between 2013 and 2018, from 54.5% to 43.4%. All age groups saw an increase in systolic blood pressure of 3-4 mmHg.

Those data, however, used the old definition of high blood pressure: 140/90. High blood pressure is now defined as a reading of 130 or higher systolic, or 80 or higher diastolic (the bottom number). Nearly half of U.S. adults – an estimated 116 million – have high blood pressure, according to AHA statistics.

Lackland said the lessons learned from 1960 to 2005 offer a roadmap for reversing recent setbacks through a combination of drug therapy and lifestyle changes that include getting more exercise and eating a healthy diet low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables.

“We’ve proven we can lower blood pressure if patients comply. We just need to put our foot back on the pedal and regain our focus. We can’t be complacent,” he said.

Dr. Sandra Taler, a nephrologist and hypertension specialist at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn., said the findings are an

Uganda reports blood shortages amid coronavirus pandemic

KAMPALA, Uganda (AP) — Health authorities in Uganda say the supply of blood has sharply declined since the start of the coronavirus pandemic as fewer people donate and schools remain closed. The consequences are sometimes deadly.

Students, especially those in secondary school, are the largest group of blood donors in the East African country but schools have been closed since March amid efforts to curb the spread of the virus.

This means the government agency charged with collecting blood is failing to meet its targets.

Dr. Emmanuel Batiibwe, the director of a hospital that looks after many of the poorest residents of the capital, Kampala, cited multiple deaths there in recent months related to blood shortages.

One victim was a woman with pregnancy complications. Children under 5 and patients going into surgery are also among those frequently in need of a blood transfusion, he said.

In July, Batiibwe’s China-Uganda Friendship Hospital received only 18 of a requisitioned 218 units of blood. The next month 68 of 217 units came in, he said.

“There’s a problem somewhere,” he said, calling the shortage a “disaster.”

The head of Uganda Blood Transfusion Services, Dr. Dorothy Byabazaire, told lawmakers earlier this year that her agency collected 56,850 units of a targeted 75,000 between April and July.

Facilities across the country submit blood orders to the agency, and there is a sharing mechanism among facilities in the event of emergencies. But “borrowing” blood can be time-consuming, Batiibwe said.

The Uganda Red Cross, which helps authorities to mobilize blood donors, said it hasn’t been easy to recruit donors during the pandemic. The country has confirmed more than 8,600 coronavirus cases, including 79 deaths.

“People don’t feed well anymore. People are stressed,” said spokeswoman Irene Nakasiita, adding that some willing, potential donors are turned away because their blood levels are too low.

Similar challenges were echoed by Ariho Franco, a donor recruiter for a blood bank operated by Kampala’s private Mengo Hospital, who said that while schools are closed they are focusing on public places. They have set up tents in locations such as the public square in central Kampala. Donors receive soda and cookies.

“The blood shortage is a serious problem because the few people who are out there that we are able to reach are unable to donate due to various reasons,” Franco said.

He said blood collection teams are facing challenges in finding donors among communities reeling from the economic impacts of the pandemic. Some people say they are not sure where their next meal will come from, he said.

“At the end of the day some people may only survive by the mercy of God since the little blood that will have been collected will only be reserved for serious emergencies,” he said.

Blood shortages have been reported elsewhere, including in parts of Europe.

Local media in Romania have cited fear of COVID-19 infections among the reasons for a decline in the number of blood donors. The cities of Iasi and

Users of blood pressure medicine have a lower risk of dying from influenza and pneumonia

Drugs to lower blood pressure of the type ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce the mortality rate of influenza and pneumonia.

This is the main conclusion of a new reassuring study published in the Journal of the American Heart Association, which Christian Fynbo Christiansen and a number of Danish colleagues are behind. He is consultant, clinical associate professor and PhD at the Department of Clinical Epidemiology, which is part of the Department of Clinical Medicine at Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark.

In the study, the researchers have compared mortality rates among 500,000 Danish patients who were admitted to hospitals in Denmark with influenza and pneumonia during the period 2005 to 2018. This has been done by correlating information from the National Patient Register (activity at Danish hospitals) with statistics from the Danish Register of Medicinal Products (the consumption of medicine in Denmark).

“A little over 100,000 of the admitted patients took ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers, and the study shows that fewer of them were put on a ventilator and that they had lower mortality rates than the hospitalised patients who took another type of drugs against elevated blood pressure, calcium blockers,” says Christian Fynbo Christiansen.

The study arrives mid in a discussion of treatment which peaked while the corona pandemic was at its height. Some medical doctors and researchers pointed out that ACE inhibitors may actually have the completely opposite effect – that is increasing the risk of dying from COVID-19 as the virus SARS-CoV-2 which causes COVID-19 enters the lungs through the same ACE receptors as the ACE inhibitors.

The hypothesis was that when the ACE inhibitor reduces the level of ACE, the body compensates for this by activating a much greater number of ACE receptors on the surface of the cells, which the SARS-CoV-2 virus then utilises as some kind of access key. The greater the number of access keys available on the surface of the cells, the more easily the virus gains access to the cells.

The theory about increased mortality has been nurtured by the fact that a strikingly large proportion of the patients who were seriously ill due to COVID-19 had elevated blood pressure, which is extensively treated with ACE inhibitors – of the 600,000 Danes who have elevated blood pressure, approximately one-third ( 200,000) of them take ACE inhibitors.

“We haven’t examined whether what applies to patients with influenza and pneumonia can be transferred directly to patients with COVID-19, but there is some evidence to suggest that ACE inhibitors have a protective effect against lung damage which we don’t see in patients who take other types of medicine to lower blood pressure. The first studies find no correlation between ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers and COVID-19. However, further studies are needed using the good Danish registers,” says Christian Fynbo Christiansen.

In Denmark, the discussion for and against the use of ACE inhibitors on corona patients has taken place (in Danish) in e.g. the Journal of

Prednisone Side Results Can Trigger Excessive Ldl cholesterol And Blood Stress

The concept particular diseases required particular therapies was pioneered by the Swiss physician and alchemist, Philippus Aureolus Paracelsus (actual name Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, 1493-1541), who additionally launched the use of chemical substances into medicine, pioneering using mercury and laudanum.

Government is hiding all of this from the folks trigger i wager if a video of animals being tortured was put on TELEVISION individuals would feel bad and vote against animal cruelty until they have no heart. From thousands and thousands of virus in a Hepatitis B affected person the inhabitants of virus was reduced to only thousands after remedy with infusion chelation therapy.

Infrared radiation is utilized in thermotherapy which finds huge utility within the therapy of high blood pressure, arthritis, coronary heart failure, persistent fatigue, stress, toxicity, insomnia, pain relief, high ldl cholesterol, accidents, diabetes, muscular ache and so forth., with the help of infrared saunas.

Oils used as drugs could be separated into two kinds: fixed and risky. If we will justify that different people really feel ache, why is it said that animals do not feel ache? The blood lets a health care provider consider a patient’s well being. With the alarming rate of dying due to the dengue virus on this tropical country, the Department of Well being issued an advisory: “By no means belief the medical cure discovered on tawa-tawa plant.

On the flipside, the consumerist mannequin is where consumers have high control over their remedies while physicians have low management – imagine sufferers now having the ability to search second opinions, select their doctors, have interaction in various and biomedical treatments on the similar time.…

Intensive Blood Pressure Lowering Potentially Harmful in ICH

Intensive lowering of systolic blood pressure (SBP) for patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) whose initial SBP is excessively high does not improve outcomes and is linked to safety concerns, new research shows.

Investigators found that ICH patients whose initial SBP was 220 mmHg and who underwent intensive BP lowering had twice the relative risk for neurologic deterioration at 24 hours without any reduction in hematoma expansion or 3-month risk for death and disability compared to their counterparts who underwent standard SBP lowering.

“The significantly higher rate of neurological deterioration associated with intensive treatment in patients with initial systolic blood pressure of 220 mm Hg or more warrants caution against broad recommendations for intensive systolic blood pressure reduction in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage,” the investigators, led by Iryna Lobanova, MD, Zeenat Qureshi Stroke Institute, University of Missouri, in Columbia, write.

The study was published online September 8 in JAMA Neurology.

Efficacy Unknown

American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines recommend lowering SBP to 140 mmHg for ICH patients whose SBP is between 150 mmHg and 220 mmHg. However, guideline authors note that the safety and efficacy of intensive SBP lowering for patients with SBP >220 mmHg “appears to be unknown.”

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of intensive SBP reduction for ICH patients with excessively high initial SBP, the investigators analyzed data from the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage–II (ATACH-II) trial, which compared intensive and standard SBP reduction for patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH.

Eligible participants had SBP >180 mmHg on two measurements. The first measurement that was recorded in the emergency department was considered the initial SBP.

Consistent with practice guidelines, treatment to lower SBP before randomization was permitted. The SBP measurement recorded immediately before randomization was the prerandomization SBP.

The treatment goal was to reduce SBP to a target range of 140 mmHg to 179 mmHg in the standard reduction group and 110 mmHg to 139 mmHg in the intensive reduction group over 24 hours.

The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who died or experienced severe disability at 90 days, defined as a Modified Rankin Scale score of 4 to 6.

Secondary outcomes included neurologic deterioration, as determined by the Glasgow Coma Scale or the NIH Stroke Scale, as well as hematoma expansion and hypotension.

Neurologic Deterioration

The study included 999 participants. Of these, 228 had an initial SBP of ≥220 mmHg. The mean age was significantly less in the excessively high SBP group than in the lower SBP group, at 59.0 and 62.8 years, respectively.

The mean minimum SBP at 6 to 7 hours and at 23 to 24 hours after randomization was significantly higher among the high SBP group than the lower SBP group.

Of the 228 patients whose initial SBP was ≥220 mmHg, 110 were randomly assigned to intensive SBP reduction, and 118 were assigned to standard SBP reduction. These two treatment groups did not differ significantly with respect to age or sex distribution.

Results showed that among participants with excessively high